Reading Lists

For readers interested in delving deeper into the subjects explored on this website. Some of these resources are not precisely about tobacco harm reduction or even tobacco at all. We include them because they are both interesting and provide direction and support for the underlying concerns with clear thought and communication. We have provided free access resources wherever possible however some key papers either do not exist online in their full form or do not exist outside of scholarly subscription. In most of these cases we have provided the link to an abstract. A full citation is also provided for those who wish to hunt down the original article or book.

Electronic cigarettes

Alliance Technologies. 2009. Chemical composition of "Instead" electronic cigarette juice and vapor. Alliance Technologies.

Bullen C, Glover M, Laugesen M, Lin R, McRobbie H & Thornley S. 2009. Effect of an electronic cigarette on cravings and withdrawal, acceptability and nicotine delivery: randomized cross-over trial. (Poster) University of Aukland, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences.

The facts about electronic cigarettes. Electronic Cigarette Association.

Laugesen M. 2008. Safety report on the Ruyan e-cigarette cartridge and inhaled aerosol. Health New Zealand.

Lerut H. 2007. Supersmoker Expert Report. Catholic University, Leuven.

Screening Information Data Set Initial Assessment Report 2001. Propylene Glycol . UNEP Publications.

Valence C & Ellicott M. 2008. Analysis of chemical components from high medium and low nicotine cartridges. LPD Laboratory Services, Blackburn Microtech Solutions.

Valence C & Ellicott M. 2008. Analysis of components from Totally Wicked E.S. Smoking Liquid. LPD Laboratory Services, Blackburn Microtech Solutions.

Westenberger BJ. 2009. Evaluation of ecigarettes. FDA Department of Health and Human Services.

E-cigarettes and harm reduction

ASH-UK. 2009. Electronic cigarettes. Action on Smoking & Health UK.

Bergen PL & Heffernan CE. 2010. Electronic cigarettes are the tobacco harm reduction phenomenon of the year - but will they survive? In Tobacco Harm Reduction 2010: a yearbook of recent research and analysis.

Heavner K, Dunworth J, Bergen PL, Nissen CM & Phillips CV. 2010. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as potential tobacco harm reduction products: Results of an online survey of e-cigarette users. In Tobacco Harm Reduction 2010: a yearbook of recent research and analysis.

Epidemiology and risk analysis

Cohen BL. 2002. How to rank risks. American Council on Science and Health.

Marmot M. 2005. Historical perspective: the social determinants of disease - some blossoms. Epidemilogical Perspectives & Innovations 2:4.

Rothman KJ. 2002. Epidemiology: an introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schelling TC. 1978. Micromotives and macrobehavior. New York: W.W.Norton.

Whyte J. 2004. Crimes against logic. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Harm reduction in general

Nadelmann E. 2005. Reducing the harms of drug prohibition in the Americas.

Nutt D. 2010. Precaution or perversion: eight harms of the precautionary principle.

Peele S. 1995. Assumptions about drugs and the marketing of drug policies. In: W.K. Bickel & R.J. DeGrandpre, Drug Policy and Human Nature, New York: Plenum pp. 199-220.

Small DR & Drucker E. 2006. Policy makers ignoring science, science ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment. Harm Reduction Journal 3:16.

Smith GCS & Pell JP. 2003. Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma related to gravitational challenge: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 327: 1459-1461.

Stimson G. 2010. Harm reduction: the advocacy of science and the science of advocacy The 1st Alison Chesney and Eddie Killoran Memorial Lecture, London School of Hygeine and Tropical Medicine, 17th November 2010. (or the lecture on youtube via IHRA.)

Misinformation: official and otherwise

Gardner D. 2008. Risk: The science and politics of fear. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.

Kozlowski LT. 2002. Harm reduction, public health and human rights: smokers have a right to be informed of significant harm reduction options. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2002 S55-S60.

Kozlowski LT & O'Connor RJ. 2003. Apply federal research rules on deception to misleading health information: an example on smokeless tobacco and cigarettes. Public Health Reports 118: 187-192.

Phillips, CV, Wang, C & Guenzel B. 2005. You might as well smoke; the misleading and harmful public message about smokeless tobacco. BMC Public Health 5:31.

Snowdon C. 2009. Velvet Glove Iron Fist: A history of anti-smoking. Little Dice.

Waterbor, JW, Adams RM, Robinson JM, Crabtree FG, Accort NA, Gilliland J. 2004. Disparities between public health educational materials and the scientific evidence that smokeless tobacco use causes cancer. Journal of Cancer Education 19(1): 17-28. Abstract.

White, A. 2008. How to read articles about health and healthcare.

Wolf JB. 2007. Is breast really best? Risk and total motherhood in the National Breastfeeding campaign. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 2007 32(4):595-636.

Nicotine and addiction

Heishman SJ, Kleykamp SA & Singleton EG. 2010. Meta-analysis of the acute effects of nicotine and smoking on human performance. Psychopharmacology 210 (4): 453-469.

Peele, S. 2006. Addictive Personality. Interview in the Guardian.

Powledge, TM. 2004. Nicotine as therapy.. PLOS Biology 2(11).

Oral cancer

Bouquot JE & Meckstroth RL. 1998. Oral cancer in a tobacco-chewing US population - no apparent increased incidence or mortality. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontology 86: 697-706. Abstract.

Danaei G, Vander Hoorn S, Lopez AD, Murray CJL, & Ezzati M. 2005. Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. Lancet 366: 1784-93. Abstract.

Lewin F, Norell SE, Johansson HJ, Gustavsson P, Wennerberg J, Bjorklund A & Rutqvist LE. 2000. Smoking tobacco, oral snuff, and alcohol in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer 82(7): 1367-1375.

Rodu B & Jansson C. 2004. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinants. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 15(5): 252-263. Abstract.

Weitkunat R, Sanders E & Lee P. 2007. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 334. Article.

Risk of smoking

Doll R. 1998. Uncovering the effects of smoking: historical perspective. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 7: 87-117.

Rodu B & Cole P. 2004. The Burden of Mortality from Smoking: Comparing Sweden with Other Countries in the European Union. European Journal of Epidemiology 19: 129-131. Posted on For Smokers Only.

Wald NJ & Hackshaw AK. 1996. Cigarette smoking: an epidemiological overview. British Medical Bulletin 52 (1): 3-11.

Smokeless tobacco and health

Accortt NA, Waterbor JW, Beall C & Howard G. 2002. Chronic disease mortality in a cohort of smokeless tobacco users. American Journal of Epidemiology 156(8): 730-7.

Accortt NA, Waterbor JW, Beall C & Howard G. 2005. Cancer incidence among a cohort of smokeless tobacco users (United States). Cancer Causes & Control 16(9): 1107-15. Abstract.

Broadstock M. 2007. Systematic review of the health effects of modified smokeless tobacco products. NZHTA Report February 2007 10:1.

Lee PN 2007. Circulatory disease and smokeless tobacco in Western populations: a review of the evidence. International Journal of Epidemiology Aug 36(4): 789-804.

Lee PN & Hamling JS. 2009. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America. BMC Medicine 7:36.

Smokeless tobacco and smoking cessation

Carlisle JK. 2003. The dangerous anti-smoking lobby: how its "quit or die" hostility to all tobacco products harms public health. Organization Trends July.

Chapman S & MacKenzie R. 2010. The Global Research Neglect of Unassisted Smoking Cessation: Causes and Consequences. PLoS Med 7(2): e1000216.

Foulds J, Ramstrom L, Burke M & Fagerstrom K. 2003. Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden. Tobacco Control 12: 349-359.

Furberg H, Bulik CM, Lerman C, Lichtenstein P, Pedersen NL,& Sullivan PF. 2005. Is Swedish snus associated with smoking initiation or smoking cessation? Tobacco Control 14:422-424.

Gartner CE, Hall WD, Vos T, Bertram MY, Wallace AL & Lim SS. 2007. Assessment of Swedish snus for tobacco harm reduction: an epidemiological modelling study.

Ramstrom LM & Foulds J. 2006. Role of snus in initiation and cessation of tobacco smoking in Sweden. Tobacco Control 15: 210 - 214.

Rodu B & Godshall WT. 2006. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers. Harm Reduction Journal 3:37.

Rodu B & Phillips CV. 2008. Switching to smokeless tobacco as a smoking cessation method: evidence from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Harm Reduction Journal 5:18.

Rodu B, Stegmayr B, Nasic S, Cole P & Asplund K. 2003. Evolving patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden. Journal of Internal Medicine 253: 660-665.

Sapundzhiev N & Werner JA. 2003. Nasal snuff: historical review and health related aspects. Journal of Larynoglogy & Otology 117: 686-691. Abstract.

Tilashalski K, Rodu B, & Cole P. 2005. Seven year follow-up of smoking cessation with smokeless tobacco. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2005, 37: 105-108. Abstract.

Tobacco harm reduction

Ballin SD. 2006. Tobacco and tobacco products: At a crossroads in the 21st century. USA.

Crane J, Blakely J & Hill S. 2004. Time for major roadworks on the tobacco road? New Zealand Medical Journal 117: 1190.

Fagerstrom KO & Schildt EB. 2003. Should the European Union lift the ban on snus?: Evidence from the Swedish experience. Addiction 98: 1191-1195.

Foulds J & Kozlowski L. 2007. Snus--what should the public-health response be? Lancet Jun 16 369 (9578): 1976-8.

Gartner CE, Hall WD, Chapman S & Freeman B. 2007. Should the health community promote smokeless tobacco (snus) as a harm reduction measure? PLoS Medicine Jul 4(7): e185.

Kozlowski LT, O'Connor RJ & Edwards BQ. 2003. Some practical points on harm reduction: What to tell your lawmaker and what to tell your brother about Swedish snus. Tobacco Control 12: 372-373.

Lund KE. 2009. A tobacco-free society or harm reduction? Which objective is better for the remaining smokers in Scandinavia? Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research. Sirus Report no.6/2009

Phillips CV.2009. Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments. 2009 Harm Reduction Journal 6:29

Phillips CV & Bergen PL (eds.) 2010. Tobacco Harm Reduction 2010: a yearbook of recent research and analysis.

Royal College of Physicians. 2008. Harm reduction in nicotine addiction: Helping people who can't quit.

Sweanor D, Alcabes P & Drucker E. 2007. Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic. International Journal of Drug Policy, 18 (2): 70-74.